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  1. The impact of re-sitting on the fairness of grading

    Christopher Wheadon

    One consideration in allowing re-sitting is that examinations are not perfectly reliable instruments. On any occasion a candidate may perform slightly better or worse depending on a number of chance factors related to their preparation and the test content....

  2. Fears for tiers: are candidates being appropriately rewarded for their performance in tiered examinations?

    Christopher Wheadon and Anton Béguin

    Tiering is a multi‐stage test design whereby teachers allocate students to a particular difficulty level (tier) of a test. This approach to the challenge of delivering assessments to students with a heterogeneous ability distribution is normal practice in UK public examinations at the age of 16....

  3. Teachers' estimates of candidates' grades: Curriculum 2000 Advanced Level Qualifications

    Debra Dhillon

    In the UK, estimated grades have long been provided to higher education establishments as part of their entry procedures. Since 1994 they have also been routinely collected by awarding bodies to facilitate the grade‐awarding process....

  4. Principles of moderation of internal assessment

    Anthony Daly, Lucy Billington, Suzanne Chamberlain, Lesley Meyer, Neil Stringer, Martin Taylor and Kate Tremain

    Assessing students’ work and awarding a mark requires human judgement. For example, two people assessing the same piece of work may disagree on whether a skill has been demonstrated to a particular level or whether a student’s written answer is clear....

  5. The effects of consistency of performance on A-level examiners' judgements of standards

    Alex Scharaschkin and Jo-Anne Baird

    One source of evidence used for the setting of minimum marks required to obtain grades in General Certificate of Education (GCE) examinations is the qualitative, expert judgement of examiners....

  6. Teachers' estimates of candidates' performances in public examinations

    Martin Delap

    Teachers' estimates of candidates' performances in public examinations are sometimes used as a ‘trigger’ to investigate where the assessment procedures may have gone awry....

  7. An investigation into the accuracy of A-level predicted grades

    Martin Delap

    This paper presents the results of an investigation into the relationship between teachers’ predictions of A‐level grades and the actual grades obtained by a sample of applicants for university places. In total, over 9,000 predicted grades from approximately 3,000 applicants were considered....

  8. Grade awarding judgements in differentiated examinations

    Frances Good and Mike Cresswell

    The consistency of grade awarders’ standards and the application of these standards to define comparable levels of achievement in differentiated examinations are investigated....