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  1. Predictive models of question difficulty- A critical review of the literature

    Debra Dhillon

    Recent decades have seen a proliferation of research into the identification and manipulation of question difficulty factors....

  2. It's a long, long time from November to June

    Christopher Wheadon

    Since 1918, if not before, the maintenance of standards over time in the English examination system has used approaches that assume that large cohorts of candidates sit their examinations at the same time of year, every year, after following a similar programme of study over a similar time period....

  3. Is an exam paper greater than the sum of its parts? A Literature Review of Question Paper Structure and presentation

    Victoria Spalding

    Literature relating to question paper structure and presentation was reviewed in order to gain insight into good practice for question paper writing....

  4. Aggregation and awarding methods for national curriculum assessments in England and Wales: a comparison of approaches proposed for Key Stages 3 and 4

    Mike Cresswell

    Most educational assessment involves aggregating a large number of observations to form a smaller number of indicators (for example, by adding up the marks from a number of questions)....

  5. Assessment of the National Curriculum- some fundamental considerations

    Mike Cresswell and Jim Houston

    This paper addresses the considerable assessment problems posed by the fact that variations in difficulty are found between tasks with identical specifications....

  6. Setting common examination papers that differentiate

    Frances Good

    Many GCSE syllabuses are examined with examinations in which all candidates take the same papers....

  7. Placing candidates who take differentiated papers on a common grade scale

    Frances Good and Mike Cresswell

    Three methods of transferring marks from differentiated papers examinations on to a common grade scale are compared....

  8. Combining grades from different assessments: how reliable is the result?

    Mike Cresswell

    Assessment usually involves combining results from a number of components. This has traditionally been done by adding marks and the issues raised are discussed in most books on assessment....