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  1. The comparability of different subjects in public examinations: a theoretical and practical critique

    Harvey Goldstein and Mike Cresswell

    Comparability between different public examinations in the same and also different subjects, has been a continuing requirement in the UK. There is a current renewed interest in between‐subject comparability, especially at A‐level....

  2. Marking consistency over time

    Anne Pinot de Moira, Claire Massey, Jo-Anne Baird and Marie Morrissy

    It is of great importance that examination bodies award candidates grades which correctly reflect the quality of work presented because, ultimately, examination results can affect life chances....

  3. The value of GCSEs

    Lesley Meyer

    Since being introduced for first teaching in 1986, GCSE qualifications have been subject to much criticism and their value is now being questioned. This paper gives a brief overview of the background to the GCSE qualification system, and then considers factors against and in favour of it....

  4. Are examination standards all in the head? Experiments with examiners’ judgements of standards in A level examinations

    Jo-Anne Baird

    Examination grading decisions are commonplace in our education system and many of them have a substantial impact upon candidates’ lives, yet little is known about the decision-making processes involved in judging standards....

  5. Assessing comparability of optional questions

    Elizabeth Harrison

    Optionality is any feature in an examination that allows different students to achieve the same qualification without responding to exactly the same set of questions. Where optionality is offered within an exam paper, it is intended that the options should be equivalent in demand....


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