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  1. Setting and maintaining GCSE and GCE grading standards: the case for contextualised cohort-referencing

    Neil Stringer

    General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) and General Certificate of Education (GCE) grading standards are determined by Awarding Bodies using procedures that adhere to the Code of Practice published by the regulator, Ofqual....

  2. Online or face-to-face? An experimental study of examiner training

    Suzanne Chamberlain and Rachel Taylor

    Thousands of examiners are employed to mark candidate scripts from the suite of public examinations offered to students during the compulsory and post-compulsory schooling phases in England, Northern Ireland and Wales....

  3. How reliable is marking in GCSE English?

    Diana Fowles

    In a re-marking exercise to investigate the reliability of marking in GCSE English examinations, the Principal Examiners’ marks were adopted as ‘true’ marks for comparison with the actual or ‘live’ marks that had been awarded by the appointed examiners....

  4. What makes marking reliable? Experiments with UK examinations

    Jo-Anne Baird, Jackie Greatorex and John Bell

    Marking reliability is purported to be produced by having an effective community of practice. No experimental research has been identified which attempts to verify empirically the aspects of a community of practice that have been observed to produce marking reliability....

  5. Is the whole worth more than the sum of the parts? Studies of examiners' grading of individual papers and candidates' whole A-level examination performances

    Jo-Anne Baird and Alex Scharaschkin

    Typically, students are assessed on elements of their performance, and it is assumed that the sum of marks for these elements will be just as impressive as the students' whole performances. Examiners might expect more for a particular grade if they only see parts of the students' work separately....

  6. The effects of consistency of performance on A-level examiners' judgements of standards

    Alex Scharaschkin and Jo-Anne Baird

    One source of evidence used for the setting of minimum marks required to obtain grades in General Certificate of Education (GCE) examinations is the qualitative, expert judgement of examiners....

  7. Do marking reliability studies have validity?

    Suzanne Chamberlain

    Marking reliability studies are essential to ensure that examiners' marking of high stakes public assessments is appropriate, consistent and fair to candidates....

  8. Is an exam paper greater than the sum of its parts? A Literature Review of Question Paper Structure and presentation

    Victoria Spalding

    Literature relating to question paper structure and presentation was reviewed in order to gain insight into good practice for question paper writing....