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  1. Setting and maintaining GCSE and GCE grading standards: the case for contextualised cohort-referencing

    Neil Stringer

    General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) and General Certificate of Education (GCE) grading standards are determined by Awarding Bodies using procedures that adhere to the Code of Practice published by the regulator, Ofqual....

  2. Principles of standard setting

    Lesley Meyer

    All awarding organisations offering general, curriculum embedded qualifications carry out standard setting....

  3. A further trial of a bookmark approach to grading objective tests

    Diana Fowles

    A second trial of the Bookmark method has been conducted, in the context of a GCSE Science module, on the basis of a one parameter model analysis of the objective test data....

  4. Teachers' estimates of candidates' grades: Curriculum 2000 Advanced Level Qualifications

    Debra Dhillon

    In the UK, estimated grades have long been provided to higher education establishments as part of their entry procedures. Since 1994 they have also been routinely collected by awarding bodies to facilitate the grade‐awarding process....

  5. Is the whole worth more than the sum of the parts? Studies of examiners' grading of individual papers and candidates' whole A-level examination performances

    Jo-Anne Baird and Alex Scharaschkin

    Typically, students are assessed on elements of their performance, and it is assumed that the sum of marks for these elements will be just as impressive as the students' whole performances. Examiners might expect more for a particular grade if they only see parts of the students' work separately....

  6. The effects of consistency of performance on A-level examiners' judgements of standards

    Alex Scharaschkin and Jo-Anne Baird

    One source of evidence used for the setting of minimum marks required to obtain grades in General Certificate of Education (GCE) examinations is the qualitative, expert judgement of examiners....

  7. Maintaining standards in UK high-stakes examinations using test equating

    Christopher Wheadon

    The dual processes of setting and maintaining of standards in high-stakes public examinations in the UK have long used the same methodology: a combination of judgement and statistics....

  8. Grade awarding judgements in differentiated examinations

    Frances Good and Mike Cresswell

    The consistency of grade awarders’ standards and the application of these standards to define comparable levels of achievement in differentiated examinations are investigated....