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  1. Setting and maintaining GCSE and GCE grading standards: the case for contextualised cohort-referencing

    Neil Stringer

    General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) and General Certificate of Education (GCE) grading standards are determined by Awarding Bodies using procedures that adhere to the Code of Practice published by the regulator, Ofqual....

  2. The impact of re-sitting on the fairness of grading

    Christopher Wheadon

    One consideration in allowing re-sitting is that examinations are not perfectly reliable instruments. On any occasion a candidate may perform slightly better or worse depending on a number of chance factors related to their preparation and the test content....

  3. Principles of standard setting

    Lesley Meyer

    All awarding organisations offering general, curriculum embedded qualifications carry out standard setting....

  4. Reliability of marking in eight GCE examinations

    Roger Murphy

    Eight recent GCE examinations, containing mainly free-response questions, were investigated in terms of their marking reliability....

  5. 'Maybe I'm not as good as I think I am.' How qualification users interpret their examination results

    Suzanne Chamberlain

    This study formed part of a two-year investigation into the reliability of public examination outcomes in England and the current paper explores participants’ narratives relating to one of the themes that emerged from the study of public perceptions of assessment reliability....

  6. How reliable is marking in GCSE English?

    Diana Fowles

    In a re-marking exercise to investigate the reliability of marking in GCSE English examinations, the Principal Examiners’ marks were adopted as ‘true’ marks for comparison with the actual or ‘live’ marks that had been awarded by the appointed examiners....

  7. What makes marking reliable? Experiments with UK examinations

    Jo-Anne Baird, Jackie Greatorex and John Bell

    Marking reliability is purported to be produced by having an effective community of practice. No experimental research has been identified which attempts to verify empirically the aspects of a community of practice that have been observed to produce marking reliability....

  8. Do marking reliability studies have validity?

    Suzanne Chamberlain

    Marking reliability studies are essential to ensure that examiners' marking of high stakes public assessments is appropriate, consistent and fair to candidates....