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  1. Exam standards

    Exam candidates, schools, universities, employers, and government all expect qualification standards to be reliable, valid and, where appropriate, comparable across years, subjects and different exam boards. This is not, however, always easy to achieve.

  2. Principles of moderation of internal assessment

    Anthony Daly, Lucy Billington, Suzanne Chamberlain, Lesley Meyer, Neil Stringer, Martin Taylor and Kate Tremain

    Assessing students’ work and awarding a mark requires human judgement. For example, two people assessing the same piece of work may disagree on whether a skill has been demonstrated to a particular level or whether a student’s written answer is clear....

  3. A qualitative exploration of perceptions of trust in A-levels

    Lucy Billington

    Although trust is central to the credibility of the examination system, little is known about how trust functions in this context. This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative exploration into perceptions of trust in A-level....

  4. Assessment expertise project: validity of assessment

    Neil Stringer

    When candidates take a test, whether it is a written examination, a practical performance, or submitting a portfolio of work, it is taken so that an examiner can assess the candidate’s performance relative to a standard....

  5. Do marking reliability studies have validity?

    Suzanne Chamberlain

    Marking reliability studies are essential to ensure that examiners' marking of high stakes public assessments is appropriate, consistent and fair to candidates....

  6. Findings from focus groups: is controlled assessment working?

    Kate Tremain

    This paper reports on the findings of a focus group study designed to explore how teachers have responded to the introduction of controlled assessment. A total of three focus groups were convened....

  7. Setting common examination papers that differentiate

    Frances Good

    Many GCSE syllabuses are examined with examinations in which all candidates take the same papers....

  8. A more generally useful measure of the weight of examination components

    Mike Cresswell

    A variety of measures of the weight of examination components are discussed in the measurement literature. Those which have been widely used are based upon considerations of candidate rank orders or the variance of the total scores....