Research library

Browse and search the library of research carried out by the Centre for Education Research and Practice, covering a wide range of topics across education and assessment.

  1. The effect of marker background and training on the quality of marking in GCSE English

    Michelle Meadows and Lucy Billington

    Historically, in the UK, marker selection criteria for national examinations have been a matter of custom and practice. Only recently has empirical evidence of the effect of background on marking reliability begun to be gathered....

  2. Numbering nested questions

    Sofia Parkinson and Neil Stringer

    In line with the aim of simplifying and standardising the format of AQA‘s question papers, it has been proposed that all question papers should be numbered using a simple sequential system (i.e. 1, 2, 3… etc.)....

  3. Teachers' estimates of candidates' grades: Curriculum 2000 Advanced Level Qualifications

    Debra Dhillon

    In the UK, estimated grades have long been provided to higher education establishments as part of their entry procedures. Since 1994 they have also been routinely collected by awarding bodies to facilitate the grade‐awarding process....

  4. What makes marking reliable? Experiments with UK examinations

    Jo-Anne Baird, Jackie Greatorex and John Bell

    Marking reliability is purported to be produced by having an effective community of practice. No experimental research has been identified which attempts to verify empirically the aspects of a community of practice that have been observed to produce marking reliability....

  5. The impact of re-sitting on the fairness of grading

    Christopher Wheadon

    One consideration in allowing re-sitting is that examinations are not perfectly reliable instruments. On any occasion a candidate may perform slightly better or worse depending on a number of chance factors related to their preparation and the test content....

  6. Fears for tiers: are candidates being appropriately rewarded for their performance in tiered examinations?

    Christopher Wheadon and Anton Béguin

    Tiering is a multi‐stage test design whereby teachers allocate students to a particular difficulty level (tier) of a test. This approach to the challenge of delivering assessments to students with a heterogeneous ability distribution is normal practice in UK public examinations at the age of 16....

  7. Item banks and on-demand tests

    Claire Whitehouse

    The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the fundamental principles of item banking....

  8. Students' approaches to learning and their performance in the Extended Project pilot

    Anthony Daly and Anne Pinot de Moira

    Within the new framework set out in the final report of the Working Group on 14–19 Reform (2004), an Extended Project Qualification (EPQ) was proposed in England to foster the development of students' independent study skills....