Is the English Baccalaureate a passport to future success?

  1. Adey, K., & Biddulph, M. (2001). The influence of pupil perceptions on subject choice at 14+ in geography and history. Educational Studies, 27, 439–450. doi:10.1080/03055690120071894
  2. Allen, R. (2015). Floors, tables and coasters: Shifting the education furniture in England’s secondary schools. Education DataLab, FFT Aspire. Retrieved from
  3. Allen, R. (2016). Revisiting how many language teachers we need to deliver the EBacc. Retrieved from
  4. Allen, R., & Thompson, D. (2016). Research brief: Changing the subject. The Sutton Trust. Retrieved from
  5. Baker, K. (2016). 12–19 education: A new baccalaureate. EDGE Foundation. Retrieved from
  6. Ball, S., Maguire, M., Braun, A., Perryman, J., & Hoskins, K. (2012). Assessment technologies in schools: ‘Deliverology’ and the ‘play of dominations’. Research Papers in Education, 27(5), 513–533. doi:10.1080/02671522.2010.550012
  7. Bleazby, J. (2015). Why some school subjects have a higher status than others: The epistemology of the traditional curriculum hierarchy. Oxford Review of Education, 41(5), 671–689. doi:10.1080/03054985.2015.1090966
  8. Cadwallader, S. (2012). Is the English Baccalaureate the most appropriate academic core? Subject choice and attainment at GCSE and A-level. Centre for Education Research and Practice, AQA.
  9. Centre for Analysis of Youth Transitions. (2011). The English Baccalaureate and GCSE choices. Sheffield: Department for Education research brief (No. DFE-RB150).
  10. Clifton, J., & Cook, W. (2012). A long division: Closing the attainment gap in England’s secondary schools. London: IPPR. Retrieved from
  11. Coe, R. (2008). Comparability of GCSE examinations in different subjects: An application of the Rasch model. Oxford Review of Education, 34(5), 609–636.
  12. Coe, R., Searle, J., Barmby, P., Jones, K., & Higgins, S. (2008). Relative difficulty of examinations in different subjects. Retrieved from
  13. Cook, W. (2013). How intake and other external factors affect school performance. Rise Trust. Retrieved from
  14. Creese, B., & Isaacs, T. (2016). International instructional systems: How England measures up. The Curriculum Journal, 27(1), 151–165. doi:10.1080/09585176.2015.1131171
  15. DfE. (2010a). Primary school performance tables 2010: User guide and resources. Retrieved from
  16. DfE. (2010b). The importance of teaching: The schools white paper (No.cm7980). London: Author. Retrieved from
  17. DfE. (2011). Youth cohort study and longitudinal study of young people in England: The activities and experiences of 19 year olds: England 2010. London: Statistical Bulletin (No. B01/2011). Retrieved from
  18. DfE. (2013a). Changes to early entry at GCSE. London: Author. Retrieved from
  19. DfE. (2013b). Reforming the accountability system for secondary schools. London: Author. Retrieved from
  20. DfE. (2015a). Consulting on implementing the English Baccalaureate. London: Author. Retrieved from
  21. DfE. (2015b). Nick Gibb: The social justice case for an academic curriculum. London: Author. Retrieved from
  22. DfE. (2015c). Nicky Morgan: Why knowledge matters. London: Author. Retrieved from
  23. DfE. (2015d). Nicky Morgan: Raising ambition for all. London: Author. Retrieved from
  24. DfE. (2015e). Nicky Morgan: One nation education. London: Author. Retrieved from
  25. DfE. (2015f). Progress 8 measure in 2016 and 2017. Guide for maintained secondary schools, academies and free schools. London: Author. Retrieved from
  26. DfE. (2015g). English Baccalaureate (EBacc) policy paper. London: Author. Retrieved from
  27. DfE. (2015h). SFR37/2015: Provisional GCSE and equivalent results in England, 2014 to 2015, 15 October 2015. London: Author. Retrieved from
  28. DfE. (2016a). The importance of the curriculum. London: Author. Retrieved from
  29. DfE. (2016b). School performance tables: How to interpret the data. Retrieved from
  30. DfE. (2016c). Nick Gibb: What is good education in the 21stcentury? London: Author. Retrieved from
  31. DfE. (2016d). SFR03/2017: Revised GCSE and equivalent results in England, 2015 to 2016, 19 January, 2017. London: Author. Retrieved from
  32. DfE. (2017a). Progress 8 and attainment 8: Guide for maintained secondary schools, academies and free schools. London: Author. Retrieved from
  33. DfE. (2017b). 2017 secondary schools table. Retrieved from
  34. DfE. (2017c). Implementing the English Baccalaureate: Government consultation response. London: Author. Retrieved from
  35. DfE. (n.d.). English Baccalaureate (EBacc). Retrieved from
  36. Expressive Arts Subjects. (2016). Retrieved from
  37. Francis, B., Archer, L., Hodgen, J., Pepper, D., Taylor, B., & Travers, M. C. (2017). Exploring the relative lack of impact of research on ‘ability grouping’ in England: A discourse analytic account. Cambridge Journal of Education, 47(1), 1–17. doi:10.1080/0305764X.2015.1093095
  38. Furnham, A., Monsen, J., & Ahmetoglu, G. (2009). Typical intellectual engagement, big five personality traits, approaches to learning and cognitive ability predictors of academic performance. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(4), 769–782. doi:10.1348/978185409X412147
  39. Greevey, H., Knox, A., Nunney, F., & Pye, J. (2012). The effects of the English Baccalaureate. London: Ipsos MORI, Department for Education, Research report (No. DFE-RR249). Retrieved from
  40. Hodgson, A., & Spours, K. (2011). Rethinking general education in the English upper secondary system. London Review of Education, 9(2), 205–216. doi:10.1080/14748460.2011.585882
  41. House of Commons Education Select Committee. (2011). The English Baccalaureate (No. HC 851). London. Retrieved from
  42. Hutchings, M. (2015). Exam factories? The impact of accountability measures on children and young people. London: National Union of Teachers. Retrieved from
  43. Iannelli, C. (2013). The role of the school curriculum in social mobility. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 34(5–6), 907–928. doi:10.1080/01425692.2013.816031
  44. Isaacs, T. (2010). Educational assessment in England. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 17(3), 315–334.
  45. Jin, W., Muriel, A., & Sibieta, L. (2011). Subject and course choices at ages 14 and 16 amongst young people in England: Insights from behavioural economics. DFE (DFE-RR160). Retrieved from
  46. Long, R., & Bolton, P. (2017). English Baccalaureate briefing paper. Retrieved from
  47. McCrone, T., Morris, M., & Walker, M. (2005). Pupil choices at key stage 3 – Literature review. Slough: National foundation for educational research. Retrieved from
  48. Muir, R. (2013). The impact of league table reform on vocational education in schools. London: Institute for Public Policy Research. Retrieved from
  49. National Association of Teachers of Religious Education. (2012). An analysis of a Survey of teachers on the impact of the EBacc on student opportunity to study GCSE RS: A Fourth Study. Retrieved from
  50. Neumann, E., Towers, E., Gewirtz, S., & Maguire, M. (2016). A curriculum for all? The effects of recent Key Stage 4 curriculum, assessment and accountability reforms on English secondary education. London: NUT/King’s College. Retrieved from pp-10845.pdf
  51. O’Neill, O. (2013). Intelligent accountability in education. Oxford Review of Education, 39(1), 4–16. doi:10.1080/03054985.2013.764761
  52. Ofqual. (2014). The assessment of a level modern foreign language. Retrieved from
  53. Ofqual. (2015). Inter-Subject comparability of exam standards in GCSE and a level: ISC working paper 3. Retrieved from
  54. Ofsted. (2015). Key stage 3: The wasted years? Retrieved from
  55. Ofqual. (2017). A policy position on inter-subject comparability. Retrieved from
  56. Robertson, A. (2016, June 18). EBacc is leading to pupils being channelled into subject choices. Schools Week. Retrieved from
  57. Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. (2016). Response to Department for Education’s EBacc consultation. Retrieved from
  58. Russell Group. (2011). Informed choices: A Russell Group guide to making decisions about post-16 education. Russell Group. Retrieved October 26, 2012, from
  59. Schmidt, W. H., Burroughs, N. A., Zoido, P., & Houang, R. T. (2015). The role of schooling in perpetuating educational inequality: An international perspective. Educational Researcher, 44(7), 371–386. doi:10.3102/0012189X15603982
  60. Schools Week. (2016). The Progress 8 measure explained. Retrieved from
  61. Sousa, S., & Armor, D. J. (2010). Impact of family vs. school factors on cross-national disparities in academic achievement: Evidence from the 2006 PISA survey (GMU School of Public Policy Research Paper No. 2010-25). Arlington, VA: George Mason University, School of Public Policy. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1688131
  62. SSAT. (2015, June 17). EBacc for all? The findings from SSAT’s national survey of school leaders. Retrieved from
  63. Stables, A., & Wikeley, F. (1999). From bad to worse? Pupils’ attitudes to modern foreign languages at ages 14 and 15. The Language Learning Journal, 20(1), 27–31. doi:10.1080/09571739985200231
  64. Stokes, L., Rolf, H., Hudson-Sharp, N., & Stevens, S. (2015). Ethnic minorities and attainment: The effects of poverty. National Institute of Economic and Social Research. Report to the Department for Education. Retrieved from
  65. Strand, S. (2015). Ethnicity, deprivation and educational achievement at age 16 in England: Trends over time. Report to the Department for Education. Retrieved from
  66. Taylor, R. C. (2016). The effects of accountability measures in English secondary schools: Early and multiple entry to GCSE Mathematics assessments. Oxford Review of Education, 42(6), 629–645. doi:10.1080/03054985.2016.1197829
  67. Teaching Schools Council. (2016). Modern foreign languages pedagogy review: A review of modern foreign languages teaching practice in key stage 3 and key stage 4. Retrieved from
  68. TES. (2017, March 9). Exclusive: DfE could water down 90 per cent EBacc target. Retrieved from
  69. Thomson, D. (2017). What might EBacc average point scores look like? Retrieved from
  70. Vaughan, R. (2015, September 25). Wilshaw and DfE on EBac collision course. TES. Retrieved from
  71. Which. (2016). Retrieved from
  72. Wilkins, S., & Meeran, S. (2011). Student performance–university preference model: A framework for helping students choose the right A‐level subjects. Educational Studies, 37(5), 541–555. doi:10.1080/03055698.2010.543550
  73. Wolf, A. (2011). Review of vocational education – The wolf report. Retrieved from
  74. Worth, J., & De Lazzari, G. (2017). Teacher retention and turnover research. Research update 1: Teacher retention by subject. Slough: NFER.
  75. Young, M. (2011). The return to subjects: A sociological perspective on the UK Coalition government’s approach to the 14–19 curriculum. The Curriculum Journal, 22(2), 265–278. doi:10.1080/09585176.2011.574994