Michelle Meadows

Director of the Centre for Education Research and Practice
This paper describes an exploration into a reform of the A-level qualification in England in 2008; namely, the introduction of the ‘stretch and challenge’ policy. This policy was initiated by the exams regulator and determined that exam papers should be redesigned to encourage the application of...
Historically, in the UK, marker selection criteria for national examinations have been a matter of custom and practice. Only recently has empirical evidence of the effect of background on marking reliability begun to be gathered. This study attempts to disentangle the effects of marking experience...
Claims that A-levels do not stretch the brightest students have dogged the education system in England in recent years. Part of the Government response to this has been to introduce a policy of ‘stretch and challenge’, which features different question styles in new A-level examination papers. The...
In recent years, some commentators have argued that A-levels do not stretch the most able students. To tackle such concerns, the Government introduced a policy that has become known as ‘stretch and challenge’ in the Education and Skills White Paper. New A-level examinations were introduced for...
Prior to beginning marking, all examiners attend a Standardisation Meeting at which they are trained in the application of the mark scheme. Following the meeting, a First Phase Sample script review is conducted. This sample consists of ten scripts (five photocopied scripts and five ‘live’ scripts...
The Assessment and Qualifications Alliance, Research and Policy Analysis Department have conducted a large number of studies that have attempted to identify factors which might allow awarding bodies to predict those examiners who are likely to mark most reliably and those who are likely to require...
Marking reliability is the focus of this literature review, which will cover the levels of marking reliability achieved in different forms of assessment and research into methods of improving marking reliability.
To inform the retention of current examiners and the recruitment of new examiners, a survey of examiners’ attitudes to examining was conducted. The anonymous questionnaire included: items to elicit background information about the respondents’ examining experience; 58 closed response items...
The relationship between AS level grade, age, gender and centre type and A level grades in the June 2002 examination series was studied in seven AQA GCE specifications. The specifications studied were Biology B, Psychology B, English Language and Literature A, ICT, Mathematics A, History and...